Ball – The ball is probably the most important piece of equipment used in softball, but unlike the name states, the ball is not soft. The ball is round with a circumference of 30.2cm (12 inches) and a weight of 166.5g (6 oz). It’s also optic yellow in color with red stitches to make it easier for the batter to see.
Bat – The bat is probably the most fun piece of equipment because everyone loves hitting the ball with it. Bats are usually made of very high grade graphite, carbon, magnesium, ceramic, or some combination. They can be no longer than 34 inches (86.4cm) and weigh no more than 38 oz. (1077g).
Batting helmet – A batting helmet is used by the batter and all base-runners to protect themselves from any stray balls that might either be thrown or pitched poorly.
Catcher’s gear – Catcher’s gear is only worn by the catcher and is to protect that player from pitched or batted balls since pitched balls can travel at or near 112km an hour (70 mph).
Glove – A glove is used by every fielder in a defensive position. They are made of leather and have a pocket which is the area between the thumb and first finger that allows for the ball to be caught.
Backstop – the fence behind the batter’s box (the umpire stands behind the catcher with his/her back to the backstop)
Ball – as called by the umpire, a pitch that does not enter the strike zone in flight and is not struck at by the batter
Base on balls (BB) – also called a “walk”; the award of first base to a batter who, during his/her time at bat, receives four pitches outside the strike zone; pitchers may also issue an intentional walk without throwing those four pitches, in which case the umpire is notified and he/she awards the batter first base
Batter’s box – a rectangular area beside home plate where the batter must stand to hit the pitch
Batting order – the official list giving the sequence in which members of the (offensive) team must come to bat
Bullpen – the area in foul territory adjacent to the outfield where pitchers wait and warm-up during the game, except the pitcher currently being used in the game
Bunt – an attempt by the batter to tap the ball instead of swinging at it; the bat is lowered to (approximately) chest height, parallel to the ground
Change-up – a pitch thrown deceptively slow to surprise the batter
Curveball – a pitch thrown with a rotation that makes the ball curve
Designated hitter (DH) – a player who bats in place of a designated teammate in the batting lineup
Designated Player (DP) – a player designated to bat for any starting player, without otherwise affecting the status of player(s) in the game. Unlike the DH, this player may play a fielding position for any player in the game.
Earned run – a run for which the pitcher is held accountable
Fair ball – a ball hit into the field of play
Fielder’s choice – the act of a defensive player who handles a fair ground ball and, instead of throwing to first base to put out the batter, throws to another base in an attempt to put out the preceding runner.
Fly ball – a ball hit in the air
Force-out – an out made when a base-runner, forced to run because another teammate must run to the base being occupied, cannot reach the next base safely
Foul ball – a batted ball that settles on foul territory
Foul lines – the two straight lines extending from home plate past the outside edges of first and third bases to the outfield fence.
Foul tip – a batted ball that goes sharply and directly from the bat to the catcher’s hands and is legally caught. It is not a foul tip unless caught, and any foul tip that is caught is a strike, and the ball is in play. It is not a catch if it is a rebound, unless the ball has first touched the catcher’s glove or hand.
Illegal pitch – an act by the pitcher not allowed by rule, with or without a runner on base; if there are runners on base, each advances one base. In every case the batter is credited with one ball.
Interference – an act by a catcher that hinders or prevents a batter from hitting a pitch. On any such interference, the ball is dead and the batter is awarded first base.
Line drive – a ball hit sharply in a straight line, roughly parallel to the ground
Passed ball – a pitch that should have been held or controlled by the catcher
Pinch hitter – a player who bats in place of a teammate
Pinch runner – a player who enters the game at a base to run for another player
Rise ball – a technique used by the pitcher so that the ball goes up as it reaches the batter
Rundown – a base-runner who finds themself in the baseline between the base they were on and the subsequent base that they’re trying to advance to or retreat back from in an effort to not be put out.
Slap – performed by mostly left-handed hitters, it is an attempt to hit a ground ball with a controlled short, chopping manner (rather than with a full swing). A slap is not considered a bunt.
Time – term used by the umpire to order the suspension of play
Utility player – a player that may appear at more than one fielding position or strictly as a designated hitter
Wild pitch – a pitch so high, so low, or so wide of home plate that it cannot be handled with ordinary effort by the catcher