The sport wheelchair is the primary piece of equipment in wheelchair basketball. The wheelchair features innovations that allow for greater speed and agility with many cutting-edge, sport-enhancing design features. As per the rules of the sport, the wheelchair is considered to be a part of the player during play.
The basketball is the only other main piece of equipment needed to play wheelchair basketball. The official game ball for the Canada Games will be a Molten (size 7) basketball.
Most of the terminology used in wheelchair basketball is the same as that used in able-bodied basketball. Please refer to the list below for definitions of commonly used basketball terms.
Assist: A pass that leads directly to a basket.
Backcourt: A team's defensive half of the court. The backcourt consists of its team's own basket, the inbounds part of the backboard and that part of the playing court limited by the endline behind its own basket, the sidelines and the centre line.
Blocked Shot: A blocked shot occurs when a defensive player deflects an opposing player’s shot attempt and forces the ball to miss the basket.
Box Out: A technique in which a player will position his body and wheelchair between an opponent and the basket in order to gain a positional advantage to secure a rebound.
Classification: Classification is the process by which a team's total functional potential on the court is leveled off with respect to its opponent. It is a functional evaluation taking into consideration each player's functional ability to perform skills specific to the sport of wheelchair basketball, including wheeling, dribbling, passing, reaction to contact, shooting, and rebounding.
Classification Points: Players are assigned points as their classification; 1, 2, 3, and 4 are the recognized classes. Occasionally, an athlete displays characteristics of two classes. In these instances a .5 class may be assigned. Lower class athletes are more limited in their functional skills. Athletes assigned to higher classes have fewer limitations. For example, the 4.5 category is assigned for players with the least or minimal disability. The total number of points on the court assigned for each of the five players may not exceed 15 points.
Double-Double: An achievement in which a player records double-digit figures in two of the following positive statistical categories in the same game: points, rebounds, assists, steals and blocked shots.
Dribbling: A dribble is the movement of a live ball caused by a player in control of that ball who throws, taps, rolls the ball on the floor or throws it deliberately against the backboard.
Fast Break: A fast break is a play in which a team gains possession and moves the ball downcourt quickly in order to set up a shot attempt before the opposing team has a chance to set up defensively.
Field Goal: A basket, worth either two or three points, depending on whether it was taken from inside or outside the three-point line.
Foul: A foul is an infraction of the rules concerning illegal personal contact with an opponent or his wheelchair and/or unsportsmanlike behaviour.
Foul Trouble: When a player is nearing the limit for personal fouls (5) before he or she is ejected from the game or when a team is nearing the limit (4) in each period after which all fouls become shooting fouls.
Free Throw: A free throw is an opportunity given to a player to score one point, uncontested, from a position behind the free-throw line.
Frontcourt: A team's offensive half of the court. The frontcourt consists of the opponents' basket, the inbounds part of the backboard and that part of the playing court limited by the endline behind the opponents' basket, the sidelines and the inner edge of the centre line nearest to the opponents' basket.
Goal: A goal is made when a live ball enters the basket from above and remains within or passes through the basket. A goal released from a free throw counts one point. A goal released from the two-point field goal area counts two points. A goal released from the three-point field goal area counts three points.
Held Ball: A held ball occurs when one or more players from opposing teams have one or both hands firmly on the ball so that neither player can gain control without undue roughness.
Out-of-bounds: A player is out-of-bounds when any part of his body or any part of his wheelchair is in contact with the floor, or any object other than a player above, on or outside the boundary line. The ball is out-of-bounds when it touches: a player, wheelchair or any other person who is out-of-bounds; the floor or any object above, on or outside the boundary line; the backboard supports, the back of the backboards or any object above the playing court.
Period: A game consists of four periods of 10 minutes each. If the score is tied at the end of playing time for the fourth period, the game shall continue with as many extra periods of 5 minutes as is necessary to break the tie.
Rebound: A rebound occurs when a player gains control of the ball following a missed shot at the basket. Players can record both offensive and defensive rebounds.
Shot: A shot for a field goal or a free throw is when the ball is held in a player’s hand(s) and is then thrown into the air towards the opponents' basket.
Shot Clock: The 24-second clock used to time possessions. A team must attempt a shot that hits the rim within 24 seconds or else it loses possession of the ball.
Steal: A steal occurs when a player takes possession of the ball away from the opposing team, either off the dribble or by intercepting a pass.
Substitution: A substitution is an interruption of the game requested by the substitute to become a player.
Tap-Off: A tap-off occurs when an official tosses the ball in the centre circle between any 2 opponents at the beginning of the first period.
Three-Second Violation: A player shall not remain in the opponents' restricted area (or key) for more than three consecutive seconds while his team is in control of a live ball on the court and the game clock is running.
Throw-In: A throw-in occurs when the ball is passed into the playing court by the out-of-bounds player taking the throw-in.
Time-Out: A time-out is an interruption of the game requested by the coach or assistant coach. Each time-out lasts one minute.
Travelling: A travelling violation occurs when a player makes more than two pushes on his wheels without dribbling the ball.
Triple-Double: An achievement in which a player records double-digit figures in three of the following positive statistical categories in the same game: points, rebounds, assists, steals and blocked shots.
Turnover: A turnover results when a player loses possession of the ball, either through an errant pass or dribble or an offensive foul.
Violation: A violation is an infraction of the rules.