Backswing – The backward part of the swing, starting from the ground and going back over the head.
Birdie – one stroke under par for a hole.
Bogey – A score of one-over par for the hole; to play a hole in one stroke over par.
Boundary – The edge of the golf course that defines the area of play.
Bunker – A hazard consisting of a prepared area of ground, sometimes a hollow, from which turf or soil has been removed and replaced with sand or the like. A ball is in a bunker when it lies in or any part of it touches the bunker.
Chip shot – A short approach shot of low trajectory usually hit from near the playing green.
Course Handicap – Golf Canada’s mark that indicates the number of handicap strokes a player receives from a specific set of tees at the course being played to adjust the player’s scoring ability to the level of scratch or 0-handicap golf.
Course – The whole area within any boundaries established by the Committee
Double bogey – A score of two-over par for a single hole
Double eagle – A score of three-under par for a single hole; also known as an "albatross"
Drive – To hit the ball with maximum force and full stroke; usually with a driver from the tee.
Driver – The longest-hitting modern wooden club, used primarily from the tee when maximum distance is required.
Eagle – Two strokes under-par for a single hole; to play a hole at 2-under par.
Fairway – The area of the course between the tee and the green that is well-maintained allowing a good lie for the ball.
Green – The whole golf course according to golf rules; in popular usage, it refers to the putting surface.
Handicap Factor – Golf Canada’s service mark used to indicate a measurement of a player’s potential ability on a course of standard playing difficulty. A Handicap Factor must be current, meaning it must be updated after each round.
Hole in one/”ace” – A hole made in one stroke.
Hole – The target, the game of golf is played with the intention of getting the ball into the hole. It must be 4 1⁄4 inches (108 mm) in diameter and at least 4 inches (101.6 mm) deep.
Iron – Any one of a number of clubs with a head made of iron or steel.
Line of Play – The direction the player wishes his ball to take after a stroke, plus a reasonable distance on either side of the intended direction. The line of play extends vertically upwards from the ground, but does not extend beyond the hole.
Line of Putt – The line that the player wishes his ball to take after a stroke on the putting green; the line of putt does not extend beyond the hole.
Nearest Point of Relief – The reference point for taking relief without penalty from interference by an immovable obstruction, an abnormal ground condition, or a wrong putting green. It is the point on the course nearest to where the ball lies.
Par – Is the score a player is expected to make for a given hole. Par means errorless play under ordinary weather conditions, allowing two strokes on the putting green.
Penalty Stroke – One added to the score of a player or side under certain Rules.
Pitch – A short shot lofting the ball into the air in a high arc and landing with backspin.
Putt – The shot made on the putting green.
Putter – A short-shafted club with a straight face for putting.
Putting Green – All ground of the hole being played that is specially prepared for putting or otherwise defined as such by the Committee. A ball is on the putting green when any part of it touches the putting green.
Golf Canada Course Rating – Golf Canada’s mark that indicates the evaluation of the playing difficulty of a course for a scratch golfer under normal course and weather conditions.
Rough – Long grass areas adjacent to fairway, greens, tee-off areas or hazards
Sand Wedge – An iron with a heavy flange on the bottom, used primarily to get out of sand traps.
Scratch Golfer – A player who can play to a Course Handicap of zero on any and all rated golf courses.
Short game – The part of the game that is made up of chip shots, pitching and putting
Slope Rating – Golf Canada’s mark that indicates the measurement of the relative difficulty of a course for players who are not scratch golfers compared to Golf Canada’s Course Rating.
Stroke – The forward movement of the club made with the intention of striking at and moving the ball, but if a player checks his downswing voluntarily before the club head reaches the ball; he has not made a stroke.
Substituted Ball – A ball put into play for the original ball that was either in play, lost, out of bounds or lifted.
Swing – The action of hitting the ball.
Tee – A disposable device, normally a wooden peg, on which the ball is placed for driving. Also refers to the area from which the ball is hit on the first shot of the hole.
Tee-shot – A shot played from a tee.
Triple bogey – This term is used when a golfer is 3-over par on a hole.
Water Hazard – Any sea, lake, pond, river, ditch, surface, drainage ditch or other open water course (whether or not containing water) and anything of a similar nature on the course.
Wedge – An iron used for short shots that has a high-loft; pitching wedge, sand wedge.
Wood – A club with a large head, which can be made of wood or metal. It is used for shots requiring greater distance.
The Golf Ball – Over the years, there have been seven generations of golf balls. The first being the wood golf ball.
The second generation was created in 1618 and was made of a three piece leather casing which was sewn together and stuffed with boiled feathers (known as “featheries”). In 1848, the third generation of golf balls was created in Malaysia and is known as the Gutta Percha golf ball. The ball was more durable and low in cost to make. As golfers realized that the gutta percha ball flew better as it received more nicks and cuts. The fourth generation of the golf ball, the Hand Hammered Gutta, was created soon after.
The fifth generation of the golf ball, the Bramble, was created by Scottish club makers who created a berry like pattern design on the ball. At the end of the 19th century, the Rubber Golf Ball was invented by golfer Coburn Haskell and used until 1932 when seventh and final generation of the golf ball was created.
Today, all balls are known as the modern golf ball and are considered to be the most durable golf ball ever created.
The Golf Clubs – The evolution of golf clubs spans across four centuries, consisting of five various styles: Woods, Irons, Wedges, Hybrids and Putters. Each club is used for various shots on the course.
The Woods can be categorized into two different types: Drivers and Fairway Woods.
The Irons range can be classified into nine different types varying in the loft of the club. 1-4 irons are considered to be long irons based on the shaft and loft of the club. 5-7 irons are considered mid-irons and irons 8-9 are called short irons. Wedges are used for short distances because the angle of the loft is higher and the balls will travel a shorter distance. There are five types of wedges: pitching wedge, sand wedge, gap wedge, lob wedge and the ultra lob wedge.
The hybrid is the newest style of golf club. It is crafted like a fairway wood, but has the loft of a long-iron.
The putter, used by all golfers, is designed to hit the golf ball so that it will roll directly toward the hole.
The Golf Shoes – Golf shoes are special shoes that give golfers balance during their swing under all types of weather conditions. There are two styles of golf shoes: Hard metal spiked shoes and Soft spiked shoes. Metal spikes have generally become banned by most golf clubs.
The Golf Glove – The golf glove is an important piece of equipment used by most golfers.
Wearing the glove allows the golfer to have a solid grip on the golf club.
The Ball Marker – The ball marker is used on the green so that a player may lift their ball for cleaning or so that it’s out of their opponent’s way.